India-US Tax Treaty: Double Taxation Avoidance
Nov 28, 2023
India-US Tax Treaty: A Comprehensive Overview of Double Taxation
The India-US Tax Treaty stands as an essential guide for Indian companies considering and managing expansion into the US market. This treaty serves as a pivotal tool in managing the complex landscape of international taxation.
Mitigating Double Taxation
The treaty provides a mechanism for offsetting taxes paid in one country against tax liabilities in the other, aiding businesses in reducing overall tax burdens.
The treaty allows individuals and businesses to claim a credit for taxes paid in one country against their tax liabilities in the other. This means if a company pays taxes on income in India, it can claim a credit for these taxes when calculating its tax liability in the US, and vice versa.
Double Taxation Scenario Without the Treaty:
An Indian software company, TechSolutions, earns income from its operations in the US. Without a tax treaty, TechSolutions would pay corporate taxes on this income in the US.
Additionally, if TechSolutions repatriates this income back to India, it would be subject to Indian corporate tax as well, leading to the same income being taxed twice – once in each country.
How the India-US Tax Treaty Resolves This:
Under the India-US Tax Treaty, TechSolutions can claim a credit for the taxes paid in the US against its tax liabilities in India. So, if TechSolutions paid a certain amount in US taxes, it can claim this amount as a credit and reduce its tax liability in India by the same amount, effectively preventing the income from being doubly taxed.
This mechanism ensures that cross-border income is taxed fairly, without the undue burden of double taxation.
Exceptions in the India-US Tax Treaty:
Income Exclusions from the Treaty: Certain types of income may not be fully covered under the treaty's provisions, leading to potential double taxation.
Mismatched Tax Credits: If the amount of tax paid in one country is not fully creditable in the other, there could be instances of double taxation.
Differences in Taxable Year: Discrepancies in the taxable year between the two countries can sometimes lead to double taxation.
Residency Status Conflicts: Individuals or entities with complex residency statuses might face double taxation if the rules of residency and source-based taxation conflict under the laws of both countries.
Limitations of the Saving Clause: Certain incomes are not exempt under the Saving Clause, which allows each country to tax its residents as if the treaty were not in place.