Indian LLP to Private Limited Company Conversion: Procedure and Tax Implications

Mar 20, 2024

What are Limited Liability Partnerships and Private Limited Companies?

Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP) and Private Limited Companies are two business structures in India with unique advantages and disadvantages:

  • Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP) provides flexibility and limited liability to its partners and is easy and quick to set up and manage.

  • A Private Limited Company offers more credibility. It informs the general public that you are a legitimate business operation.

Converting a Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP) into a Private Limited Company involves several legal and procedural steps that must be followed to ensure a smooth transition. 

In this blog, we explore the procedure conversion from a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) to a Private Limited Company in India, including why you might consider it, the procedure involved, and the regulatory, taxation, and compliance implications. 

If this is too complicated, you can book a consultation call with us. We will help you with the process:

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Understanding Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP) and Private Limited Company.

LLP (Limited Liability Partnership)

An LLP is a business structure that offers limited liability protection to its partners. In simpler terms, if the business encounters financial difficulties. Your assets are protected.

However, as your business grows, you might need a structure with more flexibility and access to capital. This is where converting your LLP to a private limited company becomes a strategic option.

Features and Advantages of Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP):

  1. Limited Liability: Your liability is limited to what you put into the business. It's like a safety net for your assets.

  2. Flexibility: You and your partners run the show without drowning in paperwork. It's like having the benefits of a corporation without the hassle.

  3. Separate Legal Entity: A Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is your entity in the eyes of the law.

  4. Perpetual Succession: Even if one partner decides to leave, Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP) can keep business and operations going. 

Private Limited Company

Now, imagine your business takes off! Investors are knocking on your door and you have big expansion plans.  

This is where a Private Limited Company (Pvt. Ltd.) steps in. It's a separate legal entity from its owners, offering limited liability protection and the ability to raise capital by issuing shares.  

In simpler terms, a Private Limited is like a more formal business structure that grants credibility and opens doors to attracting investors for growth.

Features of Private Limited Company:

  1. Limited Liability: Just like a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP), your assets are safe and sound. 

  2. Access to Capital: Need funds to fuel your growth? With a Private Limited Company, you can attract investors and secure bank loans more easily.

  3. Credibility: When you're a Private Limited Company, people take notice. You gain trust and respect in the business community.

  4. Transferability of Ownership: Want to sell your stake or bring in new partners? With shares that can be easily transferred.

Why should I convert from a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) to a Private Limited Company?

  1. Enhanced Credibility and Market Perception: As a Private Limited Company, your business gains a higher level of credibility and trust among stakeholders, including customers, suppliers, and investors. 

  2. Access to Capital and Investment Opportunities: Converting to a Private Limited Company opens doors to a wider range of funding sources, including equity investments, venture capital, and bank loans. With improved access to capital, your business can fuel its growth, expand operations, and invest in new opportunities.

  3. Limited Liability Protection: One of the most significant benefits of becoming a Private Limited Company is the limited liability protection it offers to shareholders. This means that shareholders' assets are safeguarded against business debts and liabilities, reducing the financial risk associated with running the business.

  4. Ease of Transferability and Ownership Structure: Private Limited Companies have a more flexible ownership structure compared to Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP), with shares that can be easily transferred or sold. This facilitates succession planning, allows for the entry of new investors, and provides greater flexibility in managing ownership changes within the company.

  5. Taxation Benefits and Financial Flexibility: Private Limited Companies often benefit from more favorable tax treatment compared to Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP), including lower corporate tax rates and tax incentives for certain business activities. 

    This can result in tax savings and improved financial flexibility, allowing the company to reinvest profits, reward shareholders, or pursue strategic initiatives.

Conversion Process:

So you've decided to convert your Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP) to a private limited company in India. This is a great step for growth, but there are a few hoops to jump through first. Let's break down the initial steps involved.

Step 1: Getting Everyone Onboard:

Obtaining the formal consent of all partners within the LLP is a critical preliminary step in this process. All partners should have a clear understanding of the implications associated with transitioning to a Private Limited Company structure.

Once all partners have been adequately informed and their concerns addressed, it's time to secure their formal approval. This typically involves convening a partners' meeting and passing a board resolution authorizing the conversion process.

Step 1: Director Identification Numbers (DIN) and Digital Signature Certificates (DSC):

The initial steps of converting your LLP to a Private Limited Company involve equipping your team with the necessary credentials for the online filing process. Here's a breakdown of what you'll need:

Director Identification Number (DIN):

Think of a DIN as a unique government-issued identification number specifically for individuals who serve as directors of companies in India. It acts as a KYC (Know Your Customer) measure within the corporate framework.

Who Needs a DIN?

Anyone appointed as a director of the new Private Limited Company after the conversion will require a DIN. This includes existing partners in the LLP who intend to become directors in the new company structure.

Obtaining a DIN:

The application process for a DIN is handled electronically through the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) portal. Applicants will need to submit the following documents:

  • PAN Card (copy)

  • Identity Proof (copy of Passport/Voter ID/Aadhaar Card)

  • Proof of Address (copy of utility bill/bank statement)

  • One recent passport-sized photograph

Digital Signature Certificate (DSC):

A DSC functions like a digital signature, allowing individuals to electronically sign documents and authenticate their identity during online filings with the Registrar of Companies (RoC). This eliminates the need for physical signatures and streamlines the online conversion process.

Who Needs a DSC?

All directors and authorized signatories of the new Private Limited Company will require a DSC. Similar to the DIN, existing partners who will assume directorial roles in the new company should obtain a DSC.

Obtaining a DSC:

Several authorized agencies issue DSCs in India. The application process typically involves submitting documents for identity and address verification, along with visiting a registering authority for biometric verification.

Obtaining DINs and DSCs for all designated directors is a crucial first step in the conversion process. By securing these credentials, you'll be well-equipped to navigate the online filing procedures required to convert your LLP to a Private Limited Company.

Step 3: Drafting and Filing: Putting the Paperwork in Place:

The conversion from an LLP to a Private Limited Company involves submitting a comprehensive set of documents to the Registrar of Companies (RoC). These documents serve as the official record of the conversion process and establish the legal framework for the new company. 

Here's a breakdown of the key documents you'll need:

SPICE+ Form (INC-32):

This is the central form for incorporating a company in India.  It serves as a multi-purpose form, encompassing functions like company registration, director appointment, and issuing a Permanent Account Number (PAN) and Tax Deduction and Collection Account Number (TAN). 

The form will require details like:

  • The proposed name of the new Private Limited Company

  • Registered office address of the company

  • Details of the directors (including their DINs)

  • Subscriber details (existing partners who will become shareholders)

  • Share capital structure of the company (authorized and paid-up capital)

  • Details of the LLP agreement (including any amendments for conversion)

Statement of Conversion:

This document formally declares the intention of the LLP to convert to a Private Limited Company.  It should be prepared on the LLP's letterhead and signed by all partners. The statement should mention the following:

  • Name of the LLP

  • The resolution passed by the partners for conversion (including the date of the meeting)

  • Details of the new Private Limited Company (proposed name, share capital)

LLP Agreement (with Conversion Clause):

While the existing LLP agreement will continue to govern the pre-conversion period, it's essential to ensure it includes a clause outlining the conversion process. If such a clause isn't present, a supplementary agreement needs to be drafted specifically for the conversion. This agreement should address:

  • The process for converting assets and liabilities of the LLP to the new company

  • Distribution of shares in the new company to existing partners

  • Any changes to profit-sharing ratios or management structure

No-Objection Certificate (NOC) from Creditors:

To ensure a smooth conversion, it's advisable to obtain a No-Objection Certificate (NOC) from all creditors of the LLP. This document confirms that the LLP has settled all outstanding dues with its creditors and there are no impediments to the conversion.

No-Objection Certificate (NOC) from Partners:

A written NOC from each partner of the LLP signifies their formal consent to the conversion process. This demonstrates unanimity among partners and helps avoid potential roadblocks during the conversion.

Additional Documents:

You may also need additional documents like a detailed statement of assets and liabilities or a certificate of no-encumbrance on LLP property. Once you've got your DINs, DSCs, partner approval, and the conversion documents drafted, you'll be ready to submit them to the RoC and move on to the next stage!

After the Registrar of Companies (RoC) approves your conversion application –  you'll be getting some important documents that mark your official arrival as a private limited company:

Compliance and tax implications of conversion from Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP) to Private Limited Company:

Congratulations on successfully converting your LLP to a Private Limited Company! This new structure unlocks exciting growth opportunities, but it also comes with a shift in regulatory and compliance requirements. Let's delve deeper into what you need to be aware of:

The Regulatory Framework:
As a Private Limited Company, you'll now operate under the purview of the Companies Act, 2013. This comprehensive legislation outlines various regulations governing different aspects of your company's operations. Here are some key areas to understand:
  1. Corporate Governance: The Companies Act establishes guidelines for conducting board meetings at regular intervals, maintaining accurate and up-to-date financial records, and upholding ethical business practices. This fosters transparency and accountability within the company.

  2. Share Capital and Shareholding: The Act dictates the rules for issuing and transferring shares of the company. It also specifies the minimum share capital requirement for private limited companies and outlines shareholder rights, such as voting rights and the right to receive dividends.

  3. Disclosures and Filings: Regular filings with the Registrar of Companies (RoC) become mandatory upon conversion. These filings include annual financial statements, which provide a transparent overview of the company's financial health, along with annual returns and director reports.

  4. Taxation: Private Limited Companies are subject to corporate income tax on their profits. The applicable tax rate may differ from the individual tax rates that LLP partners faced previously. Additionally, depending on the nature of your business, you might need to comply with other indirect taxes like Goods and Services Tax (GST).

If you’re looking for help with converting your LLP to a Private Limited, book a free consultation with Commenda today:

Book a free consultation call with Commenda →


Commenda Technologies, Inc.

5617 Kirkwood Place North
Seattle, WA 98103
United States of America 🇺🇸
+1 631 921 3911

Commenda Technologies, Inc.

5617 Kirkwood Place North
Seattle, WA 98103
United States of America 🇺🇸
+1 631 921 3911


© Commenda 2024

Commenda Technologies, Inc.

5617 Kirkwood Place North
Seattle, WA 98103
United States of America 🇺🇸
+1 631 921 3911


© Commenda 2024